红湾巴斯克捕鲸站

Red Bay, established by Basque mariners in the 16th century at the north-eastern tip of Canada on the shore of the Strait of Belle Isle is an archaeological site that provides the earliest, most complete and best preserved testimony of the European whaling tradition. Gran Baya, as it was called by those who founded the station in 1530s, was used as a base for coastal hunting, butchering, rendering of whale fat by heading to produce oil and storage. It became a major source of whale oil which was shipped to Europe where it was used for lighting. The site, which was used in the summer months, includes remains of rendering ovens, cooperages, wharves, temporary living quarters and a cemetery, together with underwater remains of vessels and whale bone deposits. The station was used for some 70 years, before the local whale population was depleted.

国别加拿大 Canada
中文名称红湾巴斯克捕鲸站
英文名称Red Bay Basque Whaling Station
遗产类别文化遗产
登录年份2013
选入标准(iii)(iv)

红湾(英语:Red Bay)是加拿大拉布拉多南岸的一个渔村,曾经是巴斯克人在北美的捕鲸点。从1550年至17世纪中期,红湾拥有三艘Galleon和四艘小的Chalupa,这些捕鲸工具的发现使得红湾成为北美最有价值的水下考古点之一。2013年6月,红湾被联合国教科文组织登记为世界文化遗产。

红湾是在同名海湾的一个天然港口,得名于这片地区的红色花岗岩,二战时曾作为海军船只的停泊点。海湾内的彭尼岛和马鞍岛曾是巴斯克人捕鲸的地方,考古发现圣胡安号捕鲸船即沉没在马鞍岛附近。

在1550年至17世纪,红湾(当时称为鲸湾)是巴斯克人的捕鲸中心。纽芬兰纪念大学研究发现,来自法国南部和西班牙北部的巴斯克水手每季会派出15艘船和600名男子到美丽岛海峡捕露脊鲸和弓头鲸。1565年,一艘名为圣胡安号的捕鲸船以及数艘Chalupa在该地沉没。另一艘于2004年在该地发现的Galleon是该地发现的第四艘跨洋船只。马鞍岛附近的坟场埋葬了约140名捕鲸人,这些人被认为死于溺水和暴晒。1979年,红湾被登记为加拿大国家历史遗迹,2013年被登记为世界文化遗产。

发行国家/地区:加拿大Canada

红湾巴斯克捕鲸站
2015 加拿大 世界遗产 (5-3)
红湾巴斯克捕鲸站
2017 加拿大 世界遗产 (5-5)
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